Ankle pain – may be caused by stress fractures, tendonitis, synovitis, ankle sprains, or foot dysfunction.
Ankle sprains/instability – an injury to one or more ankle ligaments resulting from a sudden twist or fall that forces the ankle joint out of its normal position.
Bunions – an enlargement of the big-toe joint, a condition that typically becomes more prominent, arthritic, and painful with age and usually are worsened by abnormal foot formation (e.g., flat feet).
Flat feet and high arches – these conditions contribute to chronic foot and ankle problems and are often treated using an orthotic (custom-made shoe insert).
Hammertoes – toe contractures which often cause painful calluses or corns that tend to worsen over time.
Metatarsalgia – a pain in the ball of the foot, commonly caused by a neuroma. This is a non-cancerous growth causing inflammation of a nerve between the toes or the ball of the foot. Torn ligaments and abnormal friction on the ball of the foot may also be a cause of forefoot pain.
Pediatric or adolescent foot pain – ongoing foot pain is not always related to “growing pain,” but is often related to mechanical, mal-alignment or strength deficits. Growth plate problems are usually outgrown.
Plantar fasciitis and heel pain – most commonly caused by inflammation of the ligament of the arch that attaches to the heel bone.